Clinics that perform gender affirmation surgeries exist all throughout the country and in Europe. He did not want to risk having complications afterward without knowledgeable healthcare professionals nearby. It was a chance email in the middle of the night to Dr. Keith became interested in gender affirmation surgeries as a medical student. One of his first cases was a vaginoplasty — plastic surgery to create a vagina on a patient affirming from male to female.
So Keith continued his training in Belgium under Dr. Stanislas Monstrey , one of the top gender affirmation surgeons in the world. During his fellowship, Keith focused on microsurgery and breast reconstruction. Lawmakers have also changed how transgender care is covered. In a state law was passed requiring Medicaid and people under state care to have their transition-related care covered.
He was required to undergo 12 months of testosterone, as well as live continuously for 12 months in the gender role congruent with his gender identity. He was also required to provide letters from two independent psychiatric evaluations by professionals confirming he understood the complexities involved with the surgeries. For example, rather than inform Stephens that he was specifically missing one of the evaluatory letters from a psychiatrist, his insurance company would simply say his paperwork was incomplete.
He has 16 letters from his insurance company that denied his paperwork without explaining what was missing from it. For this reason, Stephens said, it took him six months, and five canceled operation dates, to have one procedure done. The team also performed a scrotoplasty which involved using testicular implants in existing tissue.
Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female) - Wikipedia
Phalloplasty is just one option for creating a penis, though. Another option is a metoidioplasty also called a meta , which involves enlarging the clitoris through testosterone.
It has a shorter recovery time and can become erect on its own. However, the penis is small after a metoidioplasty, explained Keith.
This type of judgment is exactly why Keith urges more healthcare providers to be trained to provide supportive care for transgender patients. Keith recalled a patient he had last year who was affirming from female to male. Today Stephens is engaged to his long-time partner and attending aviation school to become a pilot. Nothing is wrong with you. Consider the discrepancies in jobs requiring similar education and responsibility, or similar skills, but divided by gender.
The median earnings of information technology managers mostly men are 27 percent higher than human resources managers mostly women , according to Bureau of Labor Statistics data. At the other end of the wage spectrum, janitors usually men earn 22 percent more than maids and housecleaners usually women. She is a co-author of one of the most comprehensive studies of the phenomenon, using United States census data from to , when the share of women increased in many jobs.
The study, which she conducted with Asaf Levanon, of the University of Haifa in Israel, and Paul Allison of the University of Pennsylvania, found that when women moved into occupations in large numbers, those jobs began paying less even after controlling for education, work experience, skills, race and geography.
And there was substantial evidence that employers placed a lower value on work done by women. England said. A striking example is to be found in the field of recreation — working in parks or leading camps — which went from predominantly male to female from to Median hourly wages in this field declined 57 percentage points, accounting for the change in the value of the dollar, according to a complex formula used by Professor Levanon. The job of ticket agent also went from mainly male to female during this period, and wages dropped 43 percentage points.
The same thing happened when women in large numbers became designers wages fell 34 percentage points , housekeepers wages fell 21 percentage points and biologists wages fell 18 percentage points. The reverse was true when a job attracted more men. Computer programming, for instance, used to be a relatively menial role done by women. But when male programmers began to outnumber female ones, the job began paying more and gained prestige.
While the pay gap has been closing, it remains wide. Today, differences in the type of work men and women do account for 51 percent of the pay gap, a larger portion than in , according to definitive new research by Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn, economists at Cornell. Women have moved into historically male jobs much more in white-collar fields than in blue-collar ones.
The hairline is also a give-away. Men have a "widow's peak" that recedes on the sides. Women have a rounder hairline. Women become more masculine-looking as they get older, and Spiegel is also seeing an increase in interest in surgery among women who are not transgender. Their eyebrows descend and get flatter, their cheeks are less full, and with the jowls of aging, the tapers of the jaw disappear. And because it is not covered by insurance, many patients do the surgery in stages. Spiegel gets letters and accolades from patients who say they feel they have been "reborn.
Chloe, a year-old musician from New York, said Spiegel's surgical hand had transformed her life as a transsexual woman whose transition from male to female had been rocky. Spiegel reshaped her nose, eyebrows and chin to make her look natural, even without make-up. She said the "external stuff" has not been as important as accepting herself. If you chase for other's approval, you will fail. Spiegel agrees and has found a patient's entire personality and outlook on life can improve with a few surgical tweaks.
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One transgender woman who had struggled with alcohol addiction and depression during her marriage sought facial feminization surgery, but had no one to be with her except her estranged wife. The patient was so happy with the results that she reunited with her ex-wife, who later told Spiegel, "Now I am with the person I love.
The miserable, depressive alcoholic stage was over. I figured out what mattered. As for Sarah, she had "the whole menu" of surgical items: her eyebrows, hairline, cheeks and jaw were readjusted to make her look more like a woman. She now works a "dream job" in the hospitality industry. And a new feminine face also had another benefit -- she looks younger. All rights reserved. Play Courtesy of Dr.
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