In a flat universe, as seen on the left, a straight line will extend out to infinity. A closed universe, right, is curled up like the surface of a sphere.
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In it, a straight line will eventually return to its starting point. A provocative paper published today in the journal Nature Astronomy argues that the universe may curve around and close in on itself like a sphere, rather than lying flat like a sheet of paper as the standard theory of cosmology predicts.
However, the team of scientists behind the Planck telescope reached different conclusions in their analysis. If all the matter and energy in the universe, including dark matter and dark energy, adds up to exactly the concentration at which the energy of the outward expansion balances the energy of the inward gravitational pull, space will extend flatly in all directions. And various observations since the early s have shown that our universe is very nearly flat and must therefore come within a hair of this critical density — which is calculated to be about 5.
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The more matter these CMB photons encounter on their journey to Earth, the more lensed they get, so that their direction no longer crisply reflects their starting point in the early universe. This shows up in the data as a blurring effect, which smooths out certain peaks and dips in the spatial pattern of the light. The Planck scientists noticed the larger-than-expected lensing effect years ago; the anomaly showed up most prominently in their final analysis of the full data set , released last year.
But both the Planck team and the authors of the new paper found that the CMB data deviates by 3. The Planck team attributes the measurement to just such a fluke, or to some unaccounted-for effect that blurs the CMB light, mimicking the effect of extra matter. Or perhaps the universe is really closed. Di Valentino and co-authors point out that a closed model resolves other anomalous findings in the CMB.
For instance, researchers deduce the values of key ingredients of our universe, such as the amount of dark matter and dark energy, by measuring variations in the color of the CMB light coming from different regions of the sky. But as for Mrs. But some women have also started fishing thanks to changing concepts of gender. Research is making it clearer than ever that the notion that sex determines the fundamentals of brain structure and behavior is a misconception.
That title came to be because Ms.
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She is poor, has no family connections, and she is not a razzle-dazzle ball of charm and fire. She is a kind of waif.
In other words, a mouseburger is how Ms. Gurley Brown saw herself when she worked as a secretary for 13 years.
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But she felt that her work was simply misunderstood. My relevance is that I deal with reality.
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